Spectroscopy Laboratory

7.1 Raman Spectroscopy

The molecular characterization of inorganic and organic materials is performed non-destructively by Raman spectroscopy. The FT-Raman spectrometer and dispersive Raman microscope found in Central Research Laboratory are able to work as a hybrid system. The analysis of large objects in the microscopic scale is particularly possible by SENTERRA dispersive Raman system which is composed of a microscope mounted onto a crane. The use of different wavelength lasers (532, 785 and 1064 nm) provides efficiency in the analysis of different types of materials.

Common application fields:

  • Analyses of paints-pigments in oil paintings and ancient wall paintings
  • Characterization of archaeological objects and artworks such as manuscripts, ceramics and glass
  • Analyses of geological materials and precious stones
  • Identification of fakes/forgeries in forensic sciences
  • Analyses of polymers, food products, textiles and biological materials
  • Analyses of pharmaceutical and cosmetic products

 

7.2 FT-IR Microscope and Portable FT-IR Spectrometer

Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) is one of the widely used techniques in the chemical identification of solid and liquid samples. Analyses can be performed in different modes such as transmission, ATR and reflection. It is used as an efficient method in the non-destructive analysis of cultural property and artworks.

Application fields:

  • Identification of the protein and oil based binders in oil paintings and ancient wall paintings as well as surface coatings such as varnish and lacquer
  • Analyses of precious stones
  • Polymers and plastics industry
  • Analyses of pharmaceutical raw materials and cosmetics
  • Analyses of textile fibers
  • Analyses of food products

 

7.3 UV-Vis Spectrophotometry

Ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectrophotometry is used for the identification of organic compounds and some inorganic ions and complexes in the samples that are taken into solution.

Application fields:

  • Analyses of organic materials such as dyestuff, binders and consolidators
  • Analyses of drinking and waste water
  • Analyses of pharmaceutical materials
  • Color examination and measurement of color differences between different materials

 

7.4 Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS)

ICP-MS is a method in which the elements of inorganic and organic materials taken into solution are separated according to mass/charge ratios by the ionization of their atoms using a high temperature argon plasma. The analyses of major, minor and trace elements are performed with high sensitivity by this method (ppm and ppb scales). Multi element analysis can be carried out by ICP-MS as a fast technique. The capability of analyzing samples in milligram amounts by ICP-MS is important in the way that it allows almost non-destructive characterization of cultural property and artworks.

Common application fields:

  • Materials analyses of ceramics, glass and metals
  • Soil analysis
  • Analyses of drinking and waste water
  • Analyses of food products
  • Analyses of pharmaceutical materials

 

7.5 Multispectral Imaging System (MSI)

The use of multispectral imaging system (MSI) allows the high resolution digital imaging of cultural property and artworks such as oil paintings, wall paintings and manuscripts in the visible (400-780 nm), infrared (750-950 nm) and UV (380 nm) regions. Therefore, details revealing the artist’s way of working such as sketches and painted regions in the bottom layers which may not be visible by the naked eye can be clarified. With the images taken in the UV region, preliminary information about the organic materials, i.e. old varnish and adhesives and some organic pigments can be obtained and previous restorations on the paintings can be identified.

 

Instruments

  • Agilent Cary-100 Ultraviolet-Visible Spectrophotometer (UV-VIS)
  • Bruker SENTERRA Dispersive Raman Microscope
  • Bruker MultiRAM FT-Raman Spectrometer and Ramanscope III Modulus
  • Bruker ALPHA FT-IR Spectrometer
  • Bruker Lumos FT-IR Microscope
  • Agilent 7700 Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS)
  • Bresciani NIR-DIGI Evolution Multispectral Image System